Strategies for TEACHERS & PROVIDERS

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Strategies for Toddlers and Developmentally Young Children
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Category Behavior Intervention
Category: Activities/Small Group
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Remove chairs from tables (toddlers prefer to stand as they do activities)
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Provide developmentally appropriate activities and materials
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Provide ample choices within the activity
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Allow child to leave if not interested to select different activity
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Validate childs behavioral message, "You are telling me that you are all done. Show me all done and you can be finished."
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Offer alternative choices
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Teach child to communicate with a natural gesture, sign language, or words that he or she is all done
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Tell child clearly what you want in simple, specific language
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Help child decide when to join the activities (wait until they become comfortable with activities)
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Model each action to the child and then look expectantly for the child to imitate
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Encourage the child to sit near a friend or in the lap of an adult
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Have a designated seat for the child that is close to the teacher
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Repeat the same activities over time and gradually introduce new activities
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Provide developmentally appropriate activities and materials
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Validate childs emotion, "I see you are frustrated." You don't know how to do it. Then, offer help. "Sit in my lap and I can show you"
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Teach child to ask for "help" or ask teacher to "show me"
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity If child is learning to say "help me" or "show me"; prompt child to say words while you provide help
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Validate child emotion and then prompt new skill. For example, say "Are you telling me you want me to help you?" Just a minute and I can be with you. Say, "Come here" (teacher should also model a gesture)
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Teach child to ask for adult or peer attention using body or verbal language
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Cue child to "use words" and give him/her words to say/gesture
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Teach child request attention by saying "come here", stating the teachers name, asking to be picked up or gesturing for an adult
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Provide developmentally appropriate materials
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Incorporate child's preferences into activities
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Provide activities that require minimal teacher assistance
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Provide positive verbal comments on child's independent play
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Assure the child that teacher will be close by if he/she needs help
Category: Art
Art Child might hate getting messy Teach child make choices
Art Child might hate getting messy Validate child emotion and then prompt new skill. For example, say "Yuck, you don't like touching the paint. You can be "all done". Can you say all done? That's right, all done."
Art Child might hate getting messy Catch child as he/she fidgets and model how to say/gesture "help" or "all done"; then immediately help or allow child to leave activity
Art Child might hate getting messy Be enthusiastic about the activity and encourage the child to consider participation ("Look what we can make with the play dough"; "Look what Jason is making")
Art Child might hate getting messy Arrange for a peer to model the activity
Art Child might hate getting messy Sit with the child and show how it is done
Art Child might hate getting messy Teach child to say "all done"
Art Child might hate getting messy Reduce your expectations for participation, encourage the toddler but do not force the toddler to touch or participate
Art Child might hate getting messy Keep the activity simple
Art Child might hate getting messy Keep the pieces large
Art Child might hate getting messy Use interesting items
Art Child might hate getting messy Teach child how to explore and use art materials
Art Child might hate getting messy Teach child how to request "help"
Art Child might hate getting messy Give child plenty of time to make his/her own decision about when to join in
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Teach child how to explore and use materials appropriately
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Offer child alternative activity while validating feelings "Painting feels good. Paint goes on paper. Lets clean this up and then you can play in the sensory table."
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Distract or redirect child to using the materials appropriately "Alison, come over here to paint the paper")
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Offer an alternate activity that is appropriate for sensory play
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Stay close by and guide the toddler through the art activity
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Toddlers engage in sensory play, do not offer materials that lend themselves to this if the behavior is not acceptable
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Provide frequent specific praise for engaging with materials appropriately
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Offer a limited choice ("You can have the glue or the crayon")
Art Child might not know what to do Create a visual mini first-then schedule with objects or object photos
Art Child might not know what to do Show child what to do
Art Child might not know what to do Catch child as he/she fidgets and model how to say/gesture "help"; then immediately help
Art Child might not know what to do Provide additional direction through verbal and physical demonstrations to use materials
Art Child might not know what to do Validate child emotion and then support. For example, say "Are you frustrated? Do you need help? I can help you. Take deep breath (i.e., for crying child) and we can do it together."
Art Child might not know what to do Teach child how to explore and use art materials
Art Child might not know what to do Teach child to ask for help
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Assure the child that teacher will be close by if he/she needs help
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Pair the child with another child to do the activity
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Provide frequent and specific encouragement for engaging in the activities
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Gradually increase the expectation for engaging independently in the activity
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Attend/pay with for a brief amount of time and then say, "You play. I will be back in a minute." Before getting up to do something away from the child. Make sure to go back before the childs behavior escalates and slowly increase time away from child
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Validate child emotion and then prompt new skill. For example, say "Are you telling me you want me to sit with you?" Just a minute and I can be with you. Say, "Come here" (teacher should also model a gesture)
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Teach child request attention by saying "come here", stating the teacher's name, asking to be picked up or gesturing for an adult
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Teach child to ask for adult attention using body or verbal language
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Cue child to "use words" and give him/her words to say/gesture)
Category: Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands)
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Make sure that the bathroom environment is pleasant and appealing to the child
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Only ask the child to sit on a toilet that is the correct size for the child
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Children with disabilities might need an adaptive seat or other supports
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Encourage the child to take a comfort object with him/her to the bathroom
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Teach the child the bathroom routine using visuals with photographs to help him/her understand the sequence of activities
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Limit the steps of bathroom routine or have child do each step one at a time to increase independence and success
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Use first-then visual of "First potty, then ride bikes with friends" as an incentive (or some other preferred activity/item)
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Allow children to be in the bathroom at the same time (if you have appropriate facilities) so that there are peer models
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Validate the child's behavioral message by saying, "You are telling me that this is hard. I understand." Offer to stay with the child and provide support. If the child continues to protest, don't push the child to sit on the potty
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Have the caregiver with the closest relationship to the child assigned to assist the child
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Teach child to follow the photograph visual routine sequence
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Teach child to imitate peer washing hands
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Teach child to ask for help
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Validate the child's behavioral message, "You are telling me you don't want to wash your hands. We have to have clean hands to (play/eat). I can help you do it." Then follow through with hand washing in a gentle and supportive manner using a prevention strategy to support the child
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Provide peer modeling
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Allow the child to take the time he/she needs and don't rush him/her through the steps
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Acknowledge child's efforts and encourage the child as he does each step
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Make sure the child can reach the sink comfortably and that the water temperature is correct
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Provide child's preferred soap or soap bottle
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Have child look at a wash hands photo visual routine sequence with teacher and label pictures while pointing to each picture
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Teach the child the bathroom routine using visuals with photographs to help the child understand the sequence of activities
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Teach child how to request "help" or the teacher "come here" or call for the teacher
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Teach child to use words while providing words to say/gesture
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Cue child to "use words" and give him/her words to say/gesture
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Validate the child's behavioral message, "You are telling me you want me to stay with you. I have to help Jimmy and then I can be with you. I am right here and watching you."
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Allow the child to take a comfort object with him or her into the bathroom
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Structure the bathroom routine so the adult that has the closest relationship with the child in the bathroom
Category: Centers/Free Choice
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Provide developmentally appropriate materials that are easy for the toddler to manipulate
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Repeat the same activities with play items over time and gradually introduce new items or activities
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Pair the child with a peer who can model how to play with the items
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Teach child to request help using words, a natural gesture, or sign language
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Validate the child's behavioral message. "I think you are getting frustrated. Playing with the _____ is hard for you." Then model and offer to help the child or prompt the child to ask for help and provide help
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Teach child to use words while providing words to say/gesture
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Play with the child and model how to use items
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach child to look at the timer
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach child to accept limits
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach child to express their emotions and label whether they are feeling angry, hurt, frustrated, or sad
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach child to make an appropriate choice
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Toddlers are unlikely to understand the notion that there are a limited number of children permitted to be in an activity. To meet their unique developmental levels, provide multiples of toys and materials so that all children can play with materials
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Make sure there are ample choices for all children
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Allow toddlers to move freely in the classroom and select materials from shelves
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed If you need to close an area to the children, put a sheet on it. If the toddler does not see the center it will prevent issues about wanting to access the center or materials
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed If child becomes distressed about accessing materials or an activity that is not available, first validate emotion (I see that you are sad, you want the water table open). Follow with a choice of alternate activities ("Water table is closed, let me help you find something else to do. You can play blocks or look at books with me.")
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Teach child to ask for adult or peer attention using gesture or verbal language
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Validate child's behavioral message and then prompt new skill. For example, say "Are you telling me you want me to sit with you? Just a minute and I can be with you." Say, "Come here" (teacher should also model a gesture)
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Assure the child that the teacher will be close by if he/she needs help
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Provide descriptive praise or encouragement as children begin to play together
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Provide interactive activities with peers and scaffold their play by playing with them
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Provide developmentally appropriate activities that child can do independently or parallel to peers
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Teach child request attention by saying "come here", stating the teacher's name, asking to be picked up or gesturing for an adult
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Teach child to begin to engage in simple turn taking with a peer while scaffolding the instruction
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Use distraction as child is about to grab the toy by diverting child's attention with an interesting activity or object
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Cue child to "use words" and give him/her words to say/gesture
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Validate the child's behavioral message, "You can't hit to get the toy. Hitting hurts. _____ is playing with that toy now; I will help you find something else to play with." Then guide the child to find another activity by offering two concrete choices
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Toddlers developmentally don't have the ability to wait for a turn with an item
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Provide ample number of toys that are similar to the children
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Teach child to verbalize his/her wants or needs by stating the word, using a natural gesture, or using sign language
Category: Circle Time
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Tell child clearly what you want in simple, specific language
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Provide developmentally appropriate activities and materials story
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Create a simple picture book about circle time, using a few photos of circle time activities
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Have a designated seat for the child that is close to the teacher
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Encourage the child to sit near a friend or in the lap of an adult
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Model each action to the child and then look expectantly for the child to imitate
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Repeat the same activities over time and gradually introduce new activities
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Help child become familiar with the circle time routine
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Help child decide when to join the activities (wait until they become comfortable with activities)
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Validate child's emotion "I see you are frustrated, you don't know the song". Then, offer help "Sit in my lap and I can show you". If child is learning to say "help me" or "show me"; prompt child or provide direction to say words while you provide help
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Teach child to ask for "help" or ask teacher to "show me" by providing verbal or physical prompts (e.g., put your hand on the child's hand and guide the use of sign "help")
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Consider offering circle without the expectation that all children will participate. The toddler will let you know when he or she is developmentally ready to participate in large group activities
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Teach child simple turn-taking with a peer using materials that are appropriate for back and forth exchanges (e.g., blocks on tower, toy in container, activate electronic toy)
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Provide developmentally appropriate activities and materials
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Make sure you only persist in presenting circle time activities if the majority of children are engaged; circle for toddlers should be very brief
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Provide activities that are "hands on" by using toys, materials, pictures, and movement
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Create visual schedule with objects or object photos and have child put the objects upon completion of each activity
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Teach child to verbalize his/her wants or use sign language (incorporate sign language whenever possible into action)
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) If you split the class into 2 circle groups, keep the membership of each group consistent. Familiar sets of peers encourage social interactions
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Provide a well-defined space that help children know where the boundaries of circle time are (e.g., put a quilt on the floor that shows children where to sit for circle)
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Keep the circle time area small/keep teacher close enough to hold child's attention
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Reduce circle duration by limiting the number of activities
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Have child participate briefly in circle time and allow the child to leave circle when no longer interested
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Tell child clearly what to do in simple, specific language
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Provide additional direction through verbal and physical demonstrations to say or gesture "my turn" or "all done" (e.g., put your hand on the child's hand and direct the use of sign "all done")
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Validate child's feeling; "I see you are angry. Ouch! Hitting hurts (while making sad face). Gentle hands (rub your hand on arm to gesture gentle). Wait, I will help."
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Redirect child to use the appropriate alternative behavior ("If you want a toy, sit on your bottom, and I will pass you the basket.")
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Make your circle time group time smaller by dividing the class and having two teachers run two separate groups (however, be prepared that toddlers still might choose to not participate)
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Have a brief circle time by limiting the number of activities
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Have child put objects in a basket upon completion of each activity
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Use objects or object photos for circle mini schedule and visual choice board
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Repeat the same activities over time and gradually introduce new activities
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Provide developmentally appropriate activities and materials (e.g., be sure the content of the book is familiar to toddlers, select books with pictures that are large, colorful, and well-defined against their background, avoid small finger motions, etc.)Establish routine within the circle time and consistently following the sequence of activities (e.g., use a greeting song each day to establish a routine that circle time is beginning)
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Teach child to interact with peers through demonstration
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Teach child to understand the routine by consistently following the sequence of the routine and helping child follow through with circle time routine
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Teach child how to interact with or explore materials (e.g., showing how toys and other things are best used)
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Teach the child to signal with a gesture "all done" (e.g., shake head or wave hand) or respond to the question of "Are you all done?"
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Use distraction as child is about to get up by diverting child's attention with an interesting activity or object
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Validate child's feeling "I think you are telling me you are all done" and then support child to leave activity.
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Ask the child who becomes restless or disruptive after circle begins if he or she is "all done". Encourage the child to respond with a gesture or head shake and then allow child to leave circle
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Provide activities and materials with high preference or interest
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Give choices on whether to sit on the floor or in a beanbag chair; be flexible about where and how children sit (or even if they should sit)
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Provide activities that are "hands on" by using toys, materials, pictures, and movement
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Encourage the child to sit near a friend or in the lap of an adult
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Circle for toddlers should be very brief. Make sure you only persist in presenting circle time activities if the majority of children are engaged
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Consider offering circle without the expectation that all children will participate. The toddler will let you know when he or she is developmentally ready to participate in large group activities
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Make your circle group time smaller by dividing the class and having two teachers run two separate groups (however, be prepared that toddlers still might choose to not participate)
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Provide interactive activities (e.g., turn-taking play) that encourage child to child contact and attention
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Offer each child a chance to "perform", beginning with the child who has attention needs. For example, the child could be asked to walk into the center and twirl around and then go back to his/her spot
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Provide each child with lots of attention while conducting circle time This can be accomplished by stating children's names, touching children, and making eye contact with each child.
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Encourage the toddler to sit near a friend or the lap of an adult
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Encourage toddlers to help each other
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Teach child to make choices (e.g., allow the child to choose between sitting near a friend or on the lap of teacher)
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Provide additional direction through verbal and physical demonstrations to sit
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Validate child emotion and then redirect. For example "You are so excited, it's fun to hold hands and dance. Now we are sitting for story. Sit on your bottom so we can all see the book."
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Allow child to leave activity if behavior is too disruptive. For example, you might tell a child "When you are crawling in front of your friends, they can't see the book. Would you like to find another activity in the classroom to do? Ms. JoAnn can help you."
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Teach child to participate independently in the activities
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Teach child to engage in activity with peer that they both enjoy
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Tell child clearly what to do in simple, specific language
Category: Clean Up
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Provide the toddler with ample warning that an activity is coming to a close
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Develop long rituals with multiple signals that allow the toddler understand that the activity is changing (e.g., sing a song, bring out the clean-up basket)
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Don't rush the toddler. Help them plan for finishing the activity and putting materials away
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Provide extra time to finish the activity
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Help child finish the activity
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Help child decide when to clean-up
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Make clean-up into a game; e.g., tossing toys into a basket, scoop up toys with a shovel, put toys in a dump truck and then dump into bin, or use a shopping cart to gather up toys
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Validate the child's emotion. (e.g.,"I know you are mad, but it's time to clean up." "Center all done." "I will help or Ms. Paula will help.")
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Teach child to anticipate the end of an activity by delivering visual or verbal prompts individually (e.g., present an object cue such as timer and use voice to indicate "time to clean up")
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Teach child how to finish and then to clean
Clean Up Child likes to dump Toddlers typically dump and fill players. Ask the toddler to put an item or few items in the container or on the shelf and then quickly acknowledge cleaning and physically move the child away from the materials
Clean Up Child likes to dump Provide the child with something to do while other children finish cleaning up
Clean Up Child likes to dump Validate the child's emotion, "I see you're mad. You put the toys in and now you dumped them out. Playtime all done. I will help."
Clean Up Child likes to dump Teach and the child to put one item or several items in the container or on the shelf and then move away from the item
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Don't rush the toddler. Help them plan for finishing the activity and putting materials away
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Provide extra time to finish the activity
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Develop long rituals with multiple signals that allow the toddler understand that the activity is changing (e.g., sing a song, bring out the clean-up basket)
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Provide the toddler with ample warning that an activity is coming to a close
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Help child finish the activity
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Help child decide when to clean-up
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Validate the child's behavioral message, "You are telling me that you are not ready to clean-up." "Time to clean up. Center all done.I will help or Ms. Paula will help.")
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Teach child to anticipate the end of an activity by delivering prompts individually (e.g., talk about the activity that just happened and indicate that you are now, "all done" or "finished")
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Teach child to put object cue for an activity in a "finished" activity box
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Teach child to say, "all done"
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Teach child imitate peer cleaning
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Teach child to put toys away with teacher's help
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Teach child to ask for help
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Limit your expectations for cleaning up to one toy if child is resistant
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Sing a clean-up song and clean-up with the child
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Acknowledge the child's effort "Look at you! You are helping. You put the block on the shelf." Then assist the child in moving to the next activity
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Validate child's emotion, "I know you are mad. Put one toy in the box and then you can be all-done." If child refuses, ignore problem behavior and put toys away using hand-over-hand guidance for one or two toys
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Teach child to clean-up with a partner.
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention "Use your words." Teach child to ask or gesture for help
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Validate the child's emotion, "I see you're upset. You are telling me you want help. I can help you."
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Ask the child who is having a difficult time with starting the clean up if he or she wants help
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Make clean up a group activity. Have two children pick up a limited number of items together
Category: Computer
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Accompany the toddler to the computer and guide the child's interactions
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Provide frequent and specific encouragement for engaging in the activities
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Catch child as he/she fidgets and model how to say/gesture "help"; then immediately help
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Teach child to ask for help
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Teach child to ask for adult attention using body or verbal language
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Since Toddlers learn primarily through their social interactions with others, consider that the use of a computer might not be developmentally appropriate for the child and limit your expectations for the child to participate. In mixed age classrooms, the computer can be placed in an area that is separated from a toddlers play space
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Teach child to sit in chair for computer using a photo to prompt the child
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Sit next to the child and join in with what the child is doing
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Accompany the toddler to the computer and guide the childs interactions
Computer Child doesn't want to sit If child persists, provide verbal prompt to the child again and then say "if you can't sit, we need to be all done."
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Validate the child's feeling "You are so excited about the computer. Sit in chair to play computer."
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Tap chair and demonstrate sitting while saying "First sit, then play."
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Provide frequent and specific encouragement for engaging in the activities
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Since Toddlers learn primarily through their social interactions with others, consider that the use of a computer might not be developmentally appropriate for the child and limit your expectations for the child to participate. In mixed age classrooms, the computer can be placed in an area that is separated from a toddlers play space
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Accompany the toddler to the computer and guide the child's interactions
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Validate the child's emotion "you are so excited, you want to touch the computer. First Emma's turn and then ____'s (your) turn"
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Teach child what turn-taking means with a more socially skilled peer or very simple turn-taking games (e.g. building a block tower together and alternating turns, rolling a ball back and forth)
Category: Line Up
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Toddlers are practicing their developing motor skills and can't be expected to line up and wait. Strategies for moving the class should be developmentally appropriate and consider the toddlers need to constantly move. They might include holding a teacher and a friend's hand and moving as a small group, holding a rope with a handle for each child, holding a toy and moving as a group, etc.
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Provide extra time to finish the prior activity before lining up
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Help child finish the prior activity
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Allow toddler to just gather at the door, sink, etc.
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Teach child how and where to gather
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Re-cue to look at visual schedule for upcoming "fun activity"
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Tell child, with gesture, where they are going or what they are doing next
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Teach child to anticipate the end of an activity by delivering prompts individually (e.g., present an object cue such as timer and use voice to indicate "time to line up")
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Indicate area with a visual boundary, like a square
Category: Nap
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Reduce stimulation in the room for nap
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Move from a period of active play to a restful activity prior to nap (e.g., outdoor play, followed by toileting, reading books, and then nap)
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Encourage children to participate in the transition to nap (e.g. getting their comfort object, arranging cot)
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Personalize each child's nap area based on child's preferences including personal comfort objects, blanket, and cot/mat placement. Some children might need visual privacy from other children to fall asleep; others might need to have complete silence, while others might be supported by playing environmental soun
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Rock child who is unable to settle down independently
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Allow child to leave naptime if it seems child is not sleepy
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Teach child to participate in transitioning to nap
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Teach child to stay on cot or mat
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Hold or rock child who is unable to settle down independently
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Teach child to stay on cot or mat
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Provide support to child to stay on cot or mat
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Rock child who is unable to settle down independently
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Rub the childs back to assist child in falling asleep
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Encourage children to participate in the transition to nap (e.g. getting their comfort object, taking off shoes, arranging cot).
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Reduce stimulation in the room for nap
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Move from a period of active play to a restful activity prior to nap (e.g., outdoor play, followed by toileting, reading books, and then nap)
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Teach child to verbalize his/her wants or use sign language
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) As you increase time, teach to wait and look at timer
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Briefly withdraw attention and then redirect child to rest quietly
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Set a visual timer for a short period of time (1 minute), and have the child wait for the timer before being rubbed his/her back (slowly increase time as child succeeds)
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Assure the child that teacher will be close by if he/she needs help
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Place the child near teacher
Category: Outside Play
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Toddlers might not have the developmental skills to understand waiting for a turn. For high interest materials, provide enough of an item so that all children within the activity will have the toy (e.g., enough buckets and shovels for all the children in the sand box; enough push toys of similar features)
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Provide large toys (e.g., rocking boat, climber) that require some cooperation and help them practice turn-taking
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Use dividers to create spaces and to simplify social contact and minimize conflicts
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn If child gets involved in a toddler tiff, do not intervene immediately unless things get physical. This helps child learn how to navigate social relationships
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Validate child emotion "I know you want the toy now. You can't hit. Hitting hurts." Then provide the child with alternatives "You can ride trikes or play in the sandbox. Trikes or sandbox?" May need to use visuals or hold up toys for choice
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Cue child to "use words" and give him/her words to say/gesture
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Toddlers who are learning to take turns are simply trying to say "I want", so teach child to say or gesture "I want"
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Teach child to use words Child is encouraged to use words instead of problem behavior
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Teach child to make a choice on activity
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Teach child how to take turns within simple back and forth exchanges
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn When child continues to demand the objects/activity engaging in problem behavior, then use "first-then" statement (e.g., "First, Carl, and then __s turn")
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Use a scripted story about "staying safe outside" (include outside boundaries and where children can play)"
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Teach child to say "hot" or to use a gesture to request to be held (e.g., "up")
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Cue child to use "words"
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Validate feelings "You are hot!" and then comfort the child. You might then fan the child, use a mister, loosen the childs clothing, take child in shade, or pat the child with a damp cloth
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Consider returning inside with children who are becoming overheated
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Provide a hat or sunglasses to wear
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Guide child to cooler area of the playground and begin playing with child in the area
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Teach child to make a choice of activities
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Teach child how to use play equipment
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Redirect the child to other activities or to the safe space for running play
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Designate a safe space where the toddler can run back and forth
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Set limits (be clear about what's allowed)
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Help child make a choice of activities
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away State when and where the child can run (cue with a picture if necessary); if possible, mark "running areas" outside
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Provide activities that involve active play and running
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Teach child how to ask for adult (e.g., "up", "come", or state teacher's name)
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Teach child to use words
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Provide child with developmentally appropriate materials that will be of interest and teach child to play independently for very brief periods of time
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Cue child to "use words" and give him/her words to say/gesture
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Assure the child that you will be close by if he/she needs help
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Provide positive verbal support for play between children and independent play
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Validate child emotion and then prompt new skill. For example, say "You want me to play with you?" Say, "Come here" (teacher should also model a gesture)
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Provide developmentally appropriate activities and materials that are high interest for toddlers
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Sit with a group of toddlers and facilitate their play together
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Teach child to use words; child is encouraged to use words instead of problem behavior
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Teach child to make choices
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Cue child to "use words" and give him/her words to say/gesture
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using When child continues to demand the objects/activity by engaging in problem behavior, then use "first-then" statement (e.g., "First, Carl, and then ___'s turn")
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Teach child to say or gesture "want". Stay close by to scaffold interaction just in case the peer doesn't want to give toy
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using If child gets involved in a toddler tiff, do not intervene immediately unless things get physical to help child learn how to navigate social relationships
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Toddlers might not have the developmental skills to understand waiting for a turn. For high interest materials, provide enough of an item so that all children within the activity will have the toy (e.g., enough buckets and shovels for all the children in the sand box; enough push toys of similar features)
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Provide positive verbal support for play between children
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Validate child's emotion "I know you want the toy now. You can't hit. Hitting hurts." Then provide the child with alternatives "Emily has the wagon; you can ride trikes or play in the sandbox. I will help you find something to play."
Category: Snack/Meals
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Teach child to make a choice of seating
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Teach child mealtime expectations
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Teach child to eat independently
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Cue child to "use words" and give him/her words to say/gesture
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Redirect child who leaves the table "We sit to eat and gently guide back to table." If child persists in leaving remove dish from table until child chooses to return. Do this with a supportive stance (i.e., do not reprimand the child), "We sit to eat, when you are ready to sit, you can finish lunch."
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Set an appealing table (e.g., colored napkins, bright tablecloth, and etc.)
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Turn on calm music
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Have child sit at the end of the table in the quietest part of the room with a peer
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Modify the noise level, lighting, temperature, and space needed in the environment
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Sit next to the child
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Provide preferred chair or table/adapt the chair based on child's need
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Have the food ready before child sits at the table
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Keep the mealtime routine consistent
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Provide quite, calming activities before mealtime to help child with transition from play to mealtime
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Teach child to ask for preferred items
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Teach child to communicate with a natural gesture, sign language, or words for what he or she wants
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Teach child to explore and taste foods
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Cue child to "use words" and give him/her words to say/gesture
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Offer alternative choice
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Validate the child's behavioral message, "You are telling me that you are done with ____. Let's try something else. You can have a bite of _____ or a bite of ___."
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Ensure that mealtimes are pleasant (nice surroundings, not rushed, children are not pressured)
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Offer child choices and do not pressure child to eat when child has rejected a food
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Remove distractions in the room to help child stay focused on the meal
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Praise peers for eating ("I see Susan is really enjoying her potatoes.")
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Encourage the child to explore food, including touching and smelling
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Talk about the where foods come from, colors, textures, and flavors
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Review what is being offered and mention what looks particularly good today
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Modify the food texture, flavor, smell, temperature, or appearance
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Always have a back-up food that you know the child will eat available for occasions when a child rejects a food. You do not want to escalate your encouragement to try new foods into a power struggle with a toddler. If you have a back-up food the child will accept, you will know that the child is not going to go hungry
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Increase familiarity with the taste of a food
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Pair the new food with preferred food and present the new food repeatedly until it is no longer new
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Seat children so that they are not crowded at the table
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Put small amounts of food on each child's plate/bowl and encourage children to request more
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Provide definition to each child's eating area with a placemat
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Keep nutritious back-up food available for child who finishes food but is still hungry
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Teach child to eat from own bowl
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Ask child if he/she wants more and then provide more food
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food If child persists in a tantrum pull away from the table (e.g.., chair pulled away a few feet) and give child time to calm down. Once child becomes calm, move child back to table to finish meal
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Teach child to request more
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Redirect child to eat from own bowl
Category: Transitions
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Validate child's behavioral message, "You are telling me that you want to keep playing"
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Guide child to transition, by encouraging child to say "bye-bye to object or activity"
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Teach child to anticipate the transition using photo or object
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Teach child to imitate peer putting materials away
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Teach child to put toys away with teacher's help
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity If transition has to occur (e.g., going indoors), restate the cue "time to go to the gate, we are going inside" and then offer to help the child "I will help you"
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Transition with a photo or object that signals the next activity, point out to the child that "We are finished with _____. Now its time for ___."
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Warn child about upcoming transitions. Use predictable object cues (getting out the toy bag for circle), actions (putting balls in shed before going inside while describing what you are doing) or auditory cues (e.g., song) so that child can anticipate the transition
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Toddlers often want to continue play with an object until mastery, give the child more time and then return to offer help in cleaning up
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity If the next activity is a play activity and toddler does not like it, consider not insisting that the child participate and allow child to continue preferred activity
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Validate feelings, "I see you're sad. It's hard to say bye-bye to ___, but it's time for ____."
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Have older peer help child to next activity
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Validate child's emotion "You are having a hard time finding something to play with. I will help you."
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Teach child to ask for help or come to a teacher for assistance
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Guide child to next activity
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Provide visual sequence of transition activities using concrete objects or object photos
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Teach the child to anticipate the transition using photo or object
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Teach child imitate peer putting materials away
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Teach child to put toys away with teacher's help
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity If transition has to occur (e.g., going indoors), restate the cue "time to go to the gate, we are going inside" and then offer to help the child "I will help you"
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity If child can be given more time, state that you will return and help clean-up when child is finished
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Validate feeling, "I see you're sad. You like ___, but it's time to clean up and go to __."
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Validate child's behavioral message, "You are telling me that you want to keep playing"
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Guide child to transition, by encouraging child to say "bye-bye to object or activity"
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Transition with a photo or object that signals the next activity, point out to the child that "We are finished with _____. Now its time for ___."
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Warn child about upcoming transitions. Use predictable object cues (getting out the toy bag for circle), actions (putting balls in shed before going inside while describing what you are doing) or auditory cues (e.g., song) so that child can anticipate the transition
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Help child decide when to clean-up (wait until the child finishes the activity)
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Toddlers often want to continue play with an object until mastery, give the child more time and then return to offer help in cleaning up
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Let child know when parent is going to leave
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Develop a quick, fun ritual that teacher and child share when child arrives so that the child looks forward to going to preschool
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Support child to wave good-bye to parent and then selecting a fun activity
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Reassure that the parent will be coming back and state when in the routine the parent will return (e.g., after nap)
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Teach child to wave good-bye to parent.
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent If child's problem behavior escalates, tell the child, "When you are calm or quiet, I can pick you up (or will play with you)." Do so as soon as the child begins to calm down
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Teach child to ask for a hug or to be held by the teacher when needing comfort
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Have parent spend at least 10-15 minutes with child before leaving
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Validate child's emotion, "You are sad, Mommy had to go to work. Let's play. Mommy will be back after nap time" Then offer the child a choice of an interesting activity or object
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Teach child to clean-up with a partner
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Teach child transition expectations
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults If child continues to demand teacher attention by escalating problem behavior, then tell child "When you can stop hitting, I can help you." Wait until child begins to calm before helping
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Validate the child's emotion "You are upset. You want someone to help you. I can help you."
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Have older peer help child with transition (e.g., "Emily, can you help Sarah put her book away and come to circle.")
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Review transition expectations
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Support child during transition by guiding the child
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Teach child to ask or gesture for help
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Strategies for Preschool and Older Children
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Category Behavior Intervention
Category: Activities/Small Group
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Incorporate child's preferences or preferred theme into activity (e.g., decorate materials with favorite cartoon character or have stuffed version of cartoon character in the activity)
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Keep the activity short
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Give the child a preferred role in the activity by using first-then visuals or verbal statements with a voice of excitement to build anticipation (make sure the role is preferred)
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Teach child to gesture/say, "All done" and let child out of activity
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Teach the child to imitate and sit with his/her classmates or friends
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Teach the child to make choices
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Teach the child to follow verbal or visual first-then statements
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Refer to the timer and say "___minutes, then all done"
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity When fidgety or finished, prompt child to gesture/say, "All done"
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Take turns with the child to get him/her through the activity
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Help the child by starting the activity for him/her
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Say, "Let me help you", and then assist
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Use visual mini schedule or first-then visual to remind child of upcoming preferred activities
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Arrange group/table with little to no "escape" route for the child
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Teach other children to encourage the child and each other (e.g., clapping, thumbs up, high five)
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Praise for participating/sitting
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Use first-then visual and/or verbal statement: "First sit at table and do activity, then _____ (a fun activity)"
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Provide a "friend" or peer buddy for the activity
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Let the child be a helper to a peer buddy
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Make sure activity is related to child's experiences/preferences
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Give choices of materials, where to sit, who to sit next to, order of the activities displayed on a choice board
Activities/Small Group Child doesn't like activity Set a timer and give a visual warning cue (see Sample Visuals) to limit the time and to give the child a sense of when the activity will end
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Prompt a peer buddy to help ("Could you please show ____ how to ____?")
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Teach child to imitate peer buddy
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Validate feelings, say, "You look confused. Let me help you."
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Show child the visual mini schedule so they can see what's next in the activity
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Teach other children to encourage the child and each other (e.g., clapping, thumbs up, high five)
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Praise for participating
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Give the child a preferred job to do in the activity
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Allow child to gather materials for activity
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Let the child be a helper to the teacher. Ask the child to help pass out materials to the other children
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Provide the child with a "friend" or peer buddy for the activity
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Prompt the child to gesture/ask for help
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Prior to small group activity, show visual class schedule, and give a transition cue (say, "Few more minutes, then small group" while showing picture of "small group" or "table time" to the child)
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Make sure all materials are ready for the activity, and that the activity sequence is clear
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Use a visual mini-schedule (see Circle Mini Schedule as sample) to introduce and/or show each step of the activity and refer to each picture after each activity
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Teach the child to use gestures/words: "Help please"; "What's next?"
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Teach the child to follow the mini visual schedule of the sequence of activity
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Remind the child to gesture/ask for help
Activities/Small Group Child is confused does not understand the activity Verbally prompt the child to help pass out or get out materials while handing him/her the items
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Schedule "time" with friends/adult immediately following activity
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Use a visual schedule to tell the child when he/she can play with friends/adults (e.g., center or special activity)
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Allow child to sit next to favorite friends (if not too disruptive)
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Teach other children to encourage the child and each other (e.g., clapping, thumbs up, high five)
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Praise for participating
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Use a "raise hand" visual cue card to prompt child to raise hand for attention
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Use first-then visual: "First do table activity, then play with friends/adult"
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Show visual schedule, and remind of when the child can play with friends/adult
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Remind with visual cue card to raise hand
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Give words to say, like "Look what I did"
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Teach child to raise hand for teacher attention by prompting with visual cue card
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Teach the child to gesture/say, "Look at me" or "This is fun"
Activities/Small Group Child wants attention from other children and/or an adult Teach the child to follow visual first-then and/or visual schedule
Category: Arrival/Dismissal
Arrival/Dismissal Child has trouble coping with separation at arrival and during reunions at the end of the day Ask parents to always say good-bye to their child, even if the child is crying, Explain that this builds a sense of trust that will eventually help a child handle separation; Ask parents to talk with a child on the way to and from the program. The adult can review the day and explain when he or she will return; Establish a personal arrival and departure ritual for a child who is struggling with separation.
Category: Art
Art Child might hate getting messy Use first-then statements/visual cues ("First glue and then I will help you clean-up," "First do art, then play with cars," etc.)
Art Child might hate getting messy Have wet wipes available on table for the child to use to clean hands
Art Child might hate getting messy Adapt materials (glue stick instead of paste, finger paint with plastic spoons, allows to wear gloves, use play dough instead of clay, etc.)
Art Child might hate getting messy Validate the child's feelings ("I see you're sad; you don't like getting messy; do you want help?")
Art Child might hate getting messy Teach the child to ask for a wet wipe or to initiate cleaning up
Art Child might hate getting messy Teach feeling words and teach child to say, "I don't like this."
Art Child might hate getting messy Teach child to ask for help (this could be help with cleaning up, with doing the activity, or with accessing the adapted material)
Art Child might hate getting messy Redirect to look at the first/then visual cue (or verbally restate first-then statement)
Art Child might hate getting messy Remind the child to ask for a wet wipe
Art Child might hate getting messy Have a scripted story about "being messy"
Art Child might hate getting messy Teach child to follow first-then cues
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Remind child of the "Turtle Technique" steps
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Teach the child to follow verbal and visual cues
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Have "sensory play" on the child"s visual schedule
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Use first-then statements/visual cues ("First use glue dots, then water play," "First do art, then play with silly putty," etc.)
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Teach the child to follow visual schedule and do sensory play when it is time
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Use "Turtle Technique" with visuals and puppet to discuss and model "anger control" that the child can use if behavior occurs on a redirection
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Cue the child of what's expected
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Remind the child when it will be time for "sensory play" and show on visual schedule
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Teach child to follow first-then statements/visual cue
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Teach the child to use the "Turtle Technique": recognize feeling of anger, think "stop", go inside "shell" and take 3 deep breaths, think calm, think of a solution
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Use visual cue to assist with cuing steps (black dots on art for where to place dots of glue, photo of peer doing activity, etc.)
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Re-cue with first-then statements/visual cue
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Use adult proximity, catch the child doing what's expected and praise
Art Child might like the feel of the materials and engage with materials inappropriately (e.g., mounds of glue, paint on face/peers) Cue verbally to remind child of expectation (hands on finger paint paper, glue on paper, 3 shakes only of glitter: 1-2-3, etc.))
Art Child might not know what to do Teach the child to do activity with one step directions
Art Child might not know what to do Teach the child to imitate peer buddy
Art Child might not know what to do Provide additional direction through verbal and physical demonstrations to use materials
Art Child might not know what to do Ensure the child knows how much work has to be done and what is going to happen next
Art Child might not know what to do Praise child for doing expectations
Art Child might not know what to do Chunk the steps in one-step directions
Art Child might not know what to do Send child to activity with a peer buddy who can model the steps
Art Child might not know what to do Use a visual mini first-then schedule to display the steps in art (First color, cut, and glue; then go to center play) (see Art Visual Activity Sequence in Sample Visuals)
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Teach the child to interact with peer buddy during art
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Briefly withdraw attention and then redirect child with alternatives
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Praise and attend to children who are on-task; then quickly praise the child if imitates "on-task" behavior
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Remind child to raise hand either by modeling or by pointing to the picture and saying "raise hand" (if necessary, help the child physically raise hand)
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Have visual "raise hand" reminder (see Cue Cards) on art table to remind the child to "raise hand" for teacher, and point to it to cue the child to raise his/her hand
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Allow the child to choose a peer buddy to go to art with him/her
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Praise the child for sitting, doing activity, following directions, etc.
Art Child might want the teacher to give him/her attention Teach the child to raise hand for teacher attention
Category: Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands)
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Make a scripted story potty book using real photos, and read it to the child prior to toileting
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Use a "bathroom" activity routine schedule using real photographs
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Allow the child to take a favorite toy/book in or play music to soothe
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Start by just having the child enter, maybe just to wash hands
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Keep bathroom visits short in the beginning, especially when child is first learning to use the toilet
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Teach child to follow bathroom activity routine schedule
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Remind the child to ask/gesture for help
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Prompt child: "Let's look at the schedule and see what to do."
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Praise for staying in the bathroom
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Teach the child bathroom routine sequence
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Teach the child to ask or gesture for help (take the teacher's hand)
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to go to bathroom Offer reassurance and say "I will help you," "Let's get your toy," "Can you help me turn on the music?"
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Teach child about germs and health (at the child's age level)
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Teach child to follow visual cue and/or scripted story for hand washing
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Teach child to tolerate hand washing by using preference and making it fun
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Praise for completing each step
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Count with the child how many more steps or count how many times they need to rub his/her hands together (e.g., "O.K. put soap on, now rub 123" make it fun or silly)
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Praise for washing hands
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Use a first-then schedule: first wash hands, then ___
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Say to the child, "I will help you. You turn on the water; I will get soap"
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Sing a fun song about washing hands to encourage child to wash
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Make it fun, decorate sink area with the child's favorite characters
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Remind the child of something fun he/she can do after hand washing
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Use wash hands visual routine sequence to cue steps. Use photographs of each step of hand washing routine. (If the pictures are laminated and velcroed, the child can remove the picture or turn the picture over to indicate completion.)
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child does not want to wash hands Create a scripted story to read to the child about washing hands and read before going to bathroom or while in the bathroom
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Teach child to imitate routine sequence in "potty book"
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Teach child to follow "first-then" visual/verbal cue
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Teach the child to delay attention from adult and learn that adult attention can occur right after potty/wash hands or at a scheduled time
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Point to first-then cue; say, "first potty, then wash hands with Ms./Mr. ____", with no direct eye contact, and walk away
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Ignore inappropriate behavior
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Give much encouragement when sits on the toilet
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Use a timer. Set it for one minute and check on the child. Do this throughout activity every minute
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Reassure the child that he/she will get assistance when finished ("I will be right here when you're all done.")
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Use first-then visual and/or verbal cue "First potty, then Ms./Mr. ____ will help" or if the child toilets independently, "First potty, wash hands; then Ms./Mr. ____will walk with you to next activity."
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Use potty book scripted story with a picture of teacher at the end of the story waiting outside the door or at the doorway
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Stand near the child or in the doorway (slowly increase distance over time)
Bathroom(Potty/Wash Hands) Child wants attention and/or someone there Praise for waiting or sitting on the toilete
Category: Centers/Free Choice
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center If beginning to "fidget", say "one more, then all done"
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Prompt the child to ask/gesture for "help"
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Help the child learn to play by using least-to-most prompting (verbal, gesture/model, physical assist) to teach play scheme
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Help the child "finish" play with each toy by putting it away on labeled shelf or in labeled bin
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Praise for playing and/or for using new play schemes (e.g., clap/pat on the back, and say "You're pouring!")
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Cue the child to look at how his/her peer buddy is playing
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Teach the child how to play with the toy or materials in the center; introduce just a couple of new play schemes at a time
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Go with the child to the center, and teach play; make it brief, fun, and use items that have features the child prefers (music, lights, favorite color, texture, buttons, favorite character, etc.)
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Provide a visual choice board, and minimize the number of toys to teach play schemes; new materials and/or toys may be overwhelming
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Provide the child with a peer buddy, one with good play schemes who goes with the child to centers (and other activities) to act as a model
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Teach the child to make a toy/activity choice
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Teach the child to ask/gesture "help"
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Teach child to help clean-up
Centers/Free Choice Child doesn't know how to play with the items in the center Pick a preferred item to teach new play schemes
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach the child to choose alternative activity/item from the center choice board
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach the child to use the "Turtle Technique": recognize feeling of anger, think "stop", go inside "shell" and take 3 deep breaths, think calm, think of a solution
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach the child to use feeling vocabulary
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Visually depict when the center will be made available, either on the visual schedule or on a week long visual calendar (see Sample Visuals)
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Offer alternative center choices by pointing out what is fun in the centers that are open
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach the child to use visual first-then schedule and predict upcoming events
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach child when that center will occur through use of a week long calendar visual (see Sample Visuals)
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach the child to use center choice board to predict when desired center is available
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Teach the child to "stop" through the use of a visual cue card
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed When child continues to demand the center engaging in problem behavior, then use "first-then" statement (e.g., "First, blocks, and then water table") and be calm about the problem behavior
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Give feeling words: say, "You're sad you can't go to____, maybe tomorrow. Let's look at the schedule."
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Show the child the center choices and when the center will be open
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Provide the child with choices for center time (use pictures of the centers)
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Help the child find a fun toy or item in the center based on the child's preferences
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Use first-then visual or verbal cue: "first this center, then _______ (something the child prefers)"
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Create a daily center choice board that indicates each day which centers are open
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Use a stop sign to indicate what centers are closed
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Let the child pick a preferred friend to go with him/her to an alternate center
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Use "Turtle Technique" with visuals and puppet to discuss and model "anger control" (assist the child with understanding about the closed center and how to think of a solution)
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Praise for choosing and/or staying in the alternate center
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Refer to the visual classroom schedule, and focus on preferred activities that are coming up
Centers/Free Choice Child wants a different center or wants a center that is closed Use feeling vocabulary to role play possible scenarios in center time and model how to express feelings
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Briefly withdraw attention and then redirect child with alternatives
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Validate feelings "I know you want to play with me; we have fun together. But I need to help ____; you can play with a friend."
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Prompt child to gesture/ask "play with me"
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Say to the child "Friends play together." Say, "Let's play." "Model or show the child how to interact with peers if necessary (help the child do this using desired gestures or words)
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Tell the child "When you are calm or quiet, I will come play with you." Do so as soon as the child quiets
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Praise the child for playing throughout center time and for gesturing/asking to play with teacher or peers
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Set a timer to let the child know how long a teacher will play during center time
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Set a timer to let the child know how long before a teacher will return to play; this may need to be very short to begin with and then gradually extend time teacher is away
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Accompany the child to the center to get him/her started on play, then tell the child "I'll come back to play with you in a few minutes"
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Allow the child to pick a peer buddy to go with to center time, make sure it is a preferred classmate (if necessary, use photographs of peers to offer choices)
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Teach child to play independently for a few minutes (through the use of verbal cues and/or timer), slowly increase independent play time
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Remind that when the timer goes off, then he/she can get help with the activity
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Teach the child to gesture/ask "play with me" for attention from adults or peers
Centers/Free Choice Child wants adult or peer attention Teach the child to choose a peer buddy to play with
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Make a "my turn" card (see Sample Visuals) for toys or items that are highly preferred
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Instruct the child about turn taking; keep the turns short
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Set a timer, or count so the child will know when his/her turn is coming up next, depending on the toy
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Use first-then visual cue ("first ____'s turn, then your turn"), and point to each child as phrase is spoken
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Plan to go with the child to the center to teach turn taking; use short turns to teach turn taking
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Use "Turtle Technique" with visuals and puppet to discuss and model "anger control"
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Praise for turn taking
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Remind child of the timer (keep it short for turns); say "Listen for the bell," or "I am going to count; 1, 2, 3, your turn."
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Refer to first-then visual cue, and show the child that his/her turn is soon ("First ____'s turn, then your turn.")
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child If angry, cue child to use the "Turtle Technique" and help him/her through the steps
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child If child hits peer and grabs the toy, calmly but firmly explain that hitting is not allowed and that the toy will be removed if the hitting continues, and prompt the child to return the toy to the peer
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Teach the child turn-taking or sharing through use of timer or counting
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Teach the child to use the "my turn" cue card
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Teach the child first-then schedule to predict when its his/her turn to use the toy
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Teach the child to use the "Turtle Technique": recognize feeling of anger, think "stop", go inside "shell" and take 3 deep breaths, think calm, think of a solution
Centers/Free Choice Child wants the same toy as another child Teach the child to use feeling vocabulary
Centers/Free Choice Child(ren) struggle to stay focused or are distracted by activities in other areas Establish clear traffic paths and boundaries around interest areas.
Category: Circle Time
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Teach child how to follow class schedule
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Teach child circle expectations by using the "What Do We Do in Circle?"story
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Teach child how to "ask for help" when he/she doesn"t know how to do something
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Catch child as he/she fidgets and model how to say/gesture "help"; then immediately help
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Show child "sit" picture while patting seat and gesturing to sit
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Praise for sitting
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Have adult sit near to talk about what is happening next
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Provide descriptive feedback while in circle
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Prior to circle, read the child a scripted story about "circle time" and what is expected during circle
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Have a "sit picture" in front of where child sits
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Allow the child to transition to circle while holding picture of circle
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Clearly mark child's seat and area
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Prior to circle, show the child the class schedule and give a transition warning (say, "few more minutes, then circle" while showing picture)
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Use a picture mini schedule that shows the order of circle activities
Circle Time Child doesn't know what to do (needs help) Teach child how to follow a picture mini schedule
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Teach the child to ask/gesture "my turn"
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Teach child to follow circle picture schedule
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Teach the child to say/gesture "all done"
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Ignore inappropriate behavior, and praise those participating
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Pull out a highly preferred item or activity
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Refer to visual schedule and cue of remaining activities
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Prompt to say/gesture "all done", and then allow to go to alternate activity
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Prompt to say/gesture "my turn"
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Embed the child's preference into circle (use a favorite character, theme, or activity) (e.g., Barney, Itsy Bitsy Spider song, Thomas the Train)
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Use a "my turn" visual cue card (see Visual Samples) to indicate whose turn it is
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Place the activities that are difficult for the child towards the end of circle time and allow the child to leave circle early for an alternate activity
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Have 2 circle times, one for the children who can "hang in" and one for the developmentally younger children
Circle Time Child has difficulty with waiting, listening, taking turns (can't tolerate length or level of circle) Use a visual schedule that shows the order of circle activities and allows the child to turn the pictures over or remove the pictures upon completion of each activity
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Give the child a "job" during circle
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Ignore inappropriate behavior, and praise those participating
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Re-cue to look at circle mini schedule for upcoming "fun activity"
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Catch the child just as he/she is about to get up and prompt to use the replacement skill, or for example, you could prompt the child to say, "all done"; if needed, use hand-over-hand assistance to help with signing "all done"; then let the child leave circle for alternative activity
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Predict when the child might use challenging behavior and prompt the child to say/gesture "all done" prior to use of challenging behavior
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Include "hands-on" activities
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Arrange circle with little-to-no "escape" route for the child
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Have adult sit near and encourage with whispers/touches
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Have the child sit front and center, directly facing teacher
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Praise for participating
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Give choices (on a visual choice board, if needed) (see Sample Visuals): where to sit, song, activity, book, who to sit/interact with, order of mini-schedule within circle, activity items (puppets, instruments)
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Teach child how to say he/she is "all done" with the activity (verbally, sign language, and/or with a picture)
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Teach child how to follow circle mini schedule
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Embed preferences into circle
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Teach the child how to sit and attend for longer periods of time once the child learns the skill above
Circle Time Child is bored or doesn't like circle (wants to get out of circle) Use circle mini schedule to show when favorite circle activities will occur
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Teach the child how to look for a peer who is sitting correctly to lead activity
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Teach child to raise hand
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Remind "First sit, then you choose"
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Ignore inappropriate behavior
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Allow the child to lead a circle activity
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Show the child a "sit picture" (available in "What Do We Do In Circle?" scripted story) to cue to sit
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Choose children who are sitting "criss-cross" to pick next activity while saying "____ is sitting nice, you can pick the next song"
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Catch the child participating and verbally comment ("I see Josh doing the Hokey Pokey!" or "Look how Emma clapped just like me!")
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Let the child to pick a friend to lead the next circle activity
Circle Time Child wants attention of peers Model raising hand (or show a visual cue card) when children call out or get out of seat to gain teachers attention
Category: Clean Up
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Teach child how to decide when to clean-up
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Set timer, and allow child a minute or two to finish
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Place unfinished projects/activities in a special place to finish later, show on visual schedule when unfinished projects/activities will be rescheduled
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Use feeling vocabulary with pictures to discuss and role play.
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Use "Turtle Technique" with visuals and puppet to discuss and model "anger control"
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Teach the child to use the "Turtle Technique": recognize feeling of anger, think "stop", go inside "shell" and take 3 deep breaths, think calm, think of a solution
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Validate feelings "You look tense. I know you want to finish. We can finish ____. (Show when I schedule) Lets put your work ____ (special place)".
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Teach the child to finish in allotted time".
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Teach the child to place work in special place to finish later
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Teach the child to express his/her feelings
Clean Up Child has not finished doing the activity Remind child that he/she can finish later, and show on visual schedule when
Clean Up Child likes to dump Use visuals on shelf and material containers
Clean Up Child likes to dump Provide a clean-up bin, such as a crate or laundry basket (for developmentally younger children)
Clean Up Child likes to dump Turn-take cleaning up with the child ("First I put away a train, then you the put away a train."). Also cue visually where to put train by pointing to container or shelf
Clean Up Child likes to dump Praise children who are cleaning up ("Look how Tim put the car in the bin," "Sammy is helping her friends put away blocks," "Wow, Vin put the book on the shelf," etc.)
Clean Up Child likes to dump Encourage the child as he/she participates in cleaning
Clean Up Child likes to dump Model or have peer model how to clean-up
Clean Up Child likes to dump Praise peers for cleaning
Clean Up Child likes to dump Prompt a peer to help the child clean-up
Clean Up Child likes to dump Calmly but firmly explain that dumping is not allowed and redirect the child with alternative activities
Clean Up Child likes to dump Teach the child how to clean-up
Clean Up Child likes to dump Teach the child how to imitate peers cleaning
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Cue class to clean-up (song, bells, lights off), then go over directly to cue child individually
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Put a picture of activity on visual schedule so the child will know when the activity will occur again
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Cue child individually by presenting a "first-then" visual (e.g., first clean-up, then outside)
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Ensure the child knows how much work has to be done and what is going to happen next
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Verbally/visually re-cue using first-then statement ("first clean-up, then outside")
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Give child "safety signal"(2 more times; 5 more minutes; 3 more turns, then time to clean-up)
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Validate feelings, say "I see clean-up is hard; you look frustrated" and remind with visual schedule when the child can do the activity again
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Teach the child how to clean-up
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Teach the child how to imitate peers
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up Teach the child how to follow visual schedule
Clean Up Child might not have realized that clean-up time was coming up State "all done play" while repeating class cue, "Do you need help, or can you clean-up on your own?" Help child if needed, and immediately praise
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Cue class to clean-up (song, bells, lights off), then go over directly to cue child
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Give child "safety signal" (2 more times; 5 more minutes; 3 more turns, then time to clean-up for instruments)
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Turn-take cleaning-up with the child ("First I put away a train, and then you put away a train"). Also visually cue where to put the train by pointing to container or shelf
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Praise children who are cleaning-up ("Look how Tim put the car in the bin," "Sammy is helping her friends put away blocks," "Wow, Vin put the book on the shelf," etc.)
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Use verbal or visual first-then cue of "First clean-up, then (choice of preferred activity/item)"
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Make the task into a game (e.g., "I'll bet I can pick up more of your toys than you can.")
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Acknowledge child's work and tell the child what a great job he/she is doing
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Help child decide when to clean-up (wait until they become comfortable with activities)
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Ignore inappropriate behavior
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Point out "super cleaner-uppers," and quickly praise the child if imitates
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Using first-then statement remind child "first clean-up, then (choice of preferred activity/item)"
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Redirect to area and model clean-up through turn-taking
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Teach child to clean-up through turn taking
Clean Up Child might not want to clean-up Teach child to follow "first-then" cue
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Teach child to clean-up (through turn taking or with a buddy)
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Teach child to gesture/ask for help (either from adult or peer buddy)
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Teach the child to use "first-then" visual
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Remind child to gesture/ask for help from a teacher or clean-up peer buddy
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Use first-then visual to remind child: "first clean-up, then _____"
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Point out who is cooperating, and quickly praise the child if imitates "Kirsten is cleaning up, wow what a helper"
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Ignore inappropriate behavior
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Assign kid groups to clean-up specific play areas
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Have children pick a helper or clean-up peer buddy where one carries the bin, and the other loads items in the bin, and then they switch roles
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Praise children who are cleaning up ("Look how Tim put the car in the bin," "Sammy is helping her friends put away blocks," "Wow, Vin put the book on the shelf," etc.)
Clean Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Turn-take cleaning up with the child ("First I put away a train, and then you put away a train"). Also visually cue where to put the train by pointing to container or shelf
Category: Computer
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Have the child go to computer with a peer buddy
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Teach turn taking rules
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Teach the child to choose a friend to go with to computer
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Ask the child "do you want to take a friend?" and help choose a peer buddy
Computer Child doesn't like doing activities alone or wants help Use multiple mouse pads for when more than one child is sitting at the computer; the mouse stays on the pad of the child who is taking a turn
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Use first-then visual of "first sit, then computer"
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Teach the child to finish the given activity
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Teach the child to choose a computer activity
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Teach the child to follow first-then visual
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Teach the child to ask to change centers where he/she can "stand" if needed
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Teach the child to sit at computer
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Ignore the problem behavior and provide praise when the child sits
Computer Child doesn't want to sit If doesn't sit, give choice of leaving activity or sitting ("you can sit at computer or choose another center, like water play, where you can stand"). Show visual of alternative activity choices
Computer Child doesn't want to sit While tapping chair, state "we stand for water play and easel painting, but we sit at the computer"
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Cue to sit with first-then visual of "first sit, then computer"
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Remind child of activities when he/she can stand (water table play, easel play, play dough, dancing at circle) through a scripted story
Computer Child doesn't want to sit Praise the child and peers for sitting
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Use a timer to indicate turns (preferably one that indicates time passing in a visual manner)
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Use a "my turn" visual cue chart (see Visual Samples) where child puts a photo with his/her name on the chart to indicate when it's the child's turn
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Use multiple mouse pads for when more than one child is sitting at the computer. The mouse stays on the pad of the child who is taking a turn
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Have children practice turn-taking and sharing
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Teach the child to follow and self manage the "my turn" cue chart
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn State that when the timer goes off, then it will be your turn and the mouse will go on your pad (cue to watch the timer)
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Remind that it is another child's turn and the mouse needs to stay on the other child's pad (while pointing to the pad to cue the child to put the mouse on the other childs pad))
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn If child doesn't put mouse on other child's pad, say "you can put the mouse back" or "I can help you", wait, then help, and quickly praise
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Teach the child turn taking
Computer Child might want to have a turn but doesn't know when it's his/her turn Remind to look at the "my turn chart" to see whose turn it is
Category: Environment
Environment Child(ren) are bored or frustrated because there are not items available which match their abilities Include a range of open-ended materials, from simple to complex, that offer different levels of challenges
Environment Child(ren) are overwhelmed and lose control because they are over-stimulated by too much noise and activity Maintain a soothing and relaxing atmosphere with appropriate noise and activity levels.
Environment Child(ren) are struggling to learn how to make friends, handle frustration, and listen to and respect others Provide materials that promote cooperation and group play
Environment Child(ren) run or get in each others way Establish clear traffic paths and boundaries around interest areas.
Environment There are many disagreements over specific toys. Provide duplicates of favorite items
Environment There are not defined areas for children to expend excess energy in music and movement activities Include in the classroom arrangement a large area for meetings, read-aloud sessions, and music and movement activities
Environment There is not a predictable and/or consistent schedule Maintain a predictable and consistent schedule
Category: Line Up
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Restate first line up, then (next activity) while showing picture cues
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Use transition song or music to teach child what to expect next
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Praise those who line up correctly ("Look how Tim got right in line," "Sammy is very quick at lining up," "Wow, Vin stood right in line behind his friend," etc.)
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Use visuals of feet on floor (see Sample Visuals) to indicate where to line up
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Use first-then visuals or statements if needed (first line up, then go outside)
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Use a visual schedule to cue child of activities
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Cue with visual schedule
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Direct child to find visuals of feet on floor
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Teach the child to use visual schedule
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Teach the child how to stand in line on "feet"
Line Up Child doesn't understand where to go next Have child line-up with a peer buddy
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Use visuals of feet on floor (see Sample Visuals) to indicate where to line up
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Have a visual, such as different colored feet in a bag. The children take turns reaching in to pull out a color of feet and then go match the feet pulled from the bag to the line up feet (see Sample Visuals) and stands on the matching color
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Have child line-up with a peer buddy
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Praise those who line up correctly ("Look how Tim got right in line," "Sammy is very quick at lining up," "Wow, Vin stood right in line behind his friend," etc.)
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Have child line up while holding teacher's hand and walk in line with teacher
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Teach the child how to match "feet colors" and to stand on "line up feet"
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Praise peers for lining up
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Remind to stand on "feet"
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Offer teacher's hand to help line up
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Teach the child how to line up
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Teach the child how to imitate peers lining up
Line Up Child might not know how to line up Model or have peer model how to line up
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Temporally withhold the activity while ignoring problem behavior
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Re-cue to look at visual schedule for upcoming "fun activity"
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Let the child choose what feet they want to stand on
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Validate feelings ("I see you are mad") and remind with visual schedule when the child can do the activity he/she was doing again
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity State "all done play" while repeating class cue, "Do you need help, or can you line up on your own?" Help child if needed, and immediately praise
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Verbally/visually re-cue with first-then statement ("first line up, then outside")
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Give the child a "job"(door holder, help carry an item to next activity, etc.)
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Praise those who line up correctly ("Look how Tim got right in line," "Sammy is very quick at lining up," "Wow, Vin stood right in line behind his friend," etc.)
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Say to the child, "Let's look at the schedule to see when we will play _____ again." Then ask the child, "Do you want to put ________ away by yourself, or do you want help?" Help child if needed and say "I know this is fun, you can play it again ______"
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Put picture of desired activity on visual schedule, prior to lining up, so the child knows when the activity will occur again
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Cue class to line up by removing class visual of "line up" off of the visual schedule, then go over directly to cue child using the picture
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Give child "safety signal" (2 more times; 5 more minutes; 3 more turns, then time to line up for outside)
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Teach child to accept limits
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Teach the child how to follow visual schedule
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Teach the child how to imitate peers
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity When ignoring inappropriate behavior, make a statement that can help child understand their problem behavior will not gain them control over the situation (e.g., "When you cry, I can't hear you so let me know when your are finished, and we will talk")
Line Up Child might not want to leave activity Teach the child how to line-up
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Notice and comment on those who line up correctly
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Teach to look at and imitate peers who are lining up
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Teach child to choose a peer to line up with
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Teach the child to first line up, and then he/she can hold teacher's hand
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Say, "First line up, then high fives/thumbs up"
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Say, "First sit correctly, then you can pick a friend to line up with"
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Say, "First sit correctly, then you can hold my hand, and we will line up" (may need to cue with a picture or model)
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Ignore inappropriate behavior, and praise those who line up correctly
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Using a first-then cue, cue verbally or visually "First line up, then I will hold your hand." Once the child is in line, hold his/her hand and praise
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Allow the child to help pick children who are sitting correctly to line up
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Allow child to line up with a peer buddy of choice
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Teach to sit, then line up
Line Up Child might want Adult/Peer Attention Choose children one-by-one to line up by looking for children who are sitting nicely and say, "I'm looking for someone sitting correctly"
Line Up Child might want to be first Teach child to color match and stand on matching color feet
Line Up Child might want to be first Teach child to take turns being first through use of photograph visual cue of children in line
Line Up Child might want to be first Move the line out regardless of whether the child is in line, and then ask "Do you want to get in line on your own, or do you want help," and gently assist to walk in line, and quickly praise for joining the line
Line Up Child might want to be first Ignore inappropriate behavior, and comment on those children who are lining up nicely
Line Up Child might want to be first Use visuals of feet (see Sample Visuals) on floor to indicate where to line up
Line Up Child might want to be first Choose children one-by-one to line up by looking for children who are sitting nicely and say, "I'm looking for someone sitting correctly"
Line Up Child might want to be first Praise the child for going to the right feet or for "joining the train"
Line Up Child might want to be first Rotate who is first and have a visual reminder with the childrens photographs to indicate order
Line Up Child might want to be first Pretend to line up like a train, and point out that every train needs passenger cars and a caboose
Line Up Child might want to be first Refer to visual reminder of whose turn it is to be first
Category: Nap
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Write a simple scripted story about nap time
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Teach child to choose quiet alternative activity after resting quietly for a designated amount of time
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Use first-then visual or verbal cue: first nap, then______
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Schedule a fun activity after nap, and use visual class schedule or verbal/visual first-then cue to remind the child
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Try to darken the room or the child's nap area
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Place child near teacher and away from other children to prevent child from disturbing others
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) When quiet, lying down, and covered, offer to rub back for a short period of time, then leave for a minute or two. While the child is still lying down and quiet, return again to rub his/her back; do this intermittently
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Provide the child with a series of items to play with or look at for the length of nap time; give them to the child one at a time
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Play soothing music
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Take a group of children who do not nap and allow them to do quiet activity supervised by another adult
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Remind child of favorite or fun activity that comes next
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Tell the child, "First quiet, then I will rub you're your back", wait for child to quiet (this will not reinforce problem behavior if the child is quiet)
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Validate feelings and offer alternative, "I know you're sad but it is time to rest. You can lie down, and when you are quiet, I will sit with you or you can look at a book".
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Offer child choice of alternate quiet activity (stuffed animal, book, color, squish ball, etc.) ("First rest quietly, then you can ____ or ____.")
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Teach child to rest quietly (the child may not need naps) with favorite item
Nap Child doesn't like to nap (is not tired) Allow child to bring a favorite sleep item from home (e.g., stuffed animal, pillow, blanket etc.)
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Teach child to first rest nicely, then teacher will turn on music and rub back (or rock)
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Teach child to rub baby doll's or stuffed animal's back
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Cue to hold the comfort item
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Praise those resting quietly
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Offer choice of "comfort item"
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Say, "First lie down quietly, then I will put on the music and rub your back (or rock you)"
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Praise for resting quietly
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Provide a choice (see Sample Visuals) of a doll or stuffed animal (or a comfort item from home) to nap with
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Have child positioned with minimal distractions or "escape routes"
Nap Child has a hard time settling down or soothing self to sleep Offer to put on music and/or rock or rub the child's back using a first-then visual or verbal prompt ("First go to rest area, then I can rub your back or rock you for a bit")
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Teach child to rub baby doll's or stuffed animal's back
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Teach child to first rest nicely, then teacher will rub back
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Offer choice of "comfort item"
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Say, "I will sit with you (or rub your back) when your are quiet and lying down"
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Use first-then visual or verbal cue: "First rest, then I will rub backs"
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Schedule a short fun activity with child following nap so that he/she can have time with the teacher
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Provide a choice (see Sample Visuals) of a doll or stuffed animal (or a comfort item from home) to nap with
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Rub childs back and slowly back away/increase distance over time
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Have child positioned with minimal distractions and "escape routes"
Nap Child wants adult attention (bored or doesn't know how to soothe self to sleep) Use first-then prompt to remind "First rest or lie down, then I can come rub your back"
Category: Outside Play
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Use a timer to indicate turns (preferably one that indicates time passing in a visual manner) (see Sample Visuals)
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Use a "my turn visual cue chart" (see Sample Visuals) where child puts a photo with his/her name on the chart to indicate when it's the child's turn
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Provide multiples of the same items/activities that have high child preference
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Provide alternative choices that are of high interest, have outside play choice board available
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Use "Turtle Technique" with visuals and puppet to discuss and model "anger control" when waiting for his/her turn and throughout the day
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Encourage when uses or attempts to use new skill in place of challenging behavior
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Teach child to follow the "my turn visual cue chart"
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Remind the child that when the timer goes off then it is his/her turn and cue to watch the timer
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn When child continues to demand his turn by engaging in problem behavior, use "first-then" statement (e.g., "First, Carl, and then your turn") and be calm about the problem behavior
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Teach child to choose alternative activity while waiting
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Teach the child to use the "Turtle Technique": recognize feeling of anger, think "stop", go inside "shell" and take 3 deep breaths, think calm, think of a solution
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Teach child to wait for the timer to go off prior to taking a turn
Outside Play Child has difficulty with waiting for his/her turn Remind the child to wait by showing "my turn visual cue chart" and offer alternative choices
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Teach the child to use cold pack scarf, mister, fan, or get a drink
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Teach the child to choose alternative "cooler" activity
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Validate feelings ("I know it's hot, a few more minutes and we can go inside") Then state alternatives
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Remind child of alternative (get a drink, sit under tree, mist with water, etc.)
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Provide water play activities
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Have highly preferred activities available (activities the child really enjoys, like bubbles, trikes, big bouncy balls, etc.)
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Point out the "cooler activities", such as sandbox if under a roof, swinging can be breezier, or going under a tree
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Allow to use a "mister"
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Bring a fan outside
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Have a drink available outside
Outside Play Child hates being hot and wants to go inside Allow to wear a "cold pack" scarf
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Teach the child to follow outside "expectations"
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Assist child in learning when and where it is permissible to run (through scripted story)
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Calmly but firmly explain that running is not allowed and prompt the child to sit or stand near teacher until ready to play safely
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Remind to stay with the class
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away State outside play expectations clearly (cue with pictures if necessary)
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Remind child of "outside" boundaries
Outside Play Child loves running and thinks outside means run away Read scripted story about "staying safe"
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Teach child to play alone for short periods of time after he/she as learned the above skills
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Teach the child to ask a peer to play
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Remind of timer and when it goes off the teacher will come back
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Ignore inappropriate behavior, and cue to use new skills
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Teach the child to ask adult to play
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Warn child when getting up to leave from playing ("Three more scoops of sand, then I need to go push at the swing," "One more time around the track, then a friend can pull you in the wagon," "One more minute ball play, then I play with another friend," etc.)
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Pair up child with a peer buddy, and frequently praise when child plays with peer and vice versa
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Use a timer to let the child know how long before a teacher comes back to play
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Cue child to say "play with me"
Outside Play Child wants an adult as a play partner (adult attention) Cue child to ask a friend to play
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Teach child to "think of a solution" (what could he/she do: get another item, ask to join, ask other child to let him know when he/she is done)
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Use a ""my turn" visual cue chart for highly preferred objects/activities
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Use first-then visual cue "first ask, then play"
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Anticipate when the child wants an object/activity, and cue to ask/gesture to join in play ("Can I play?" or "My turn")
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Use a timer when necessary to indicate turns (preferably one that indicates time passing in a visual manner) (see Sample Visuals)
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Provide multiples of same items/activities that have high child preference
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Offer alternate activity/toy
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Remind child to ask/gesture to play
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Teach child to wait turn
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Teach the child to gesture/ask to use object or activity ("Can I play?")
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using When child continues to demand the objects/activity engaging in problem behavior, then use "first-then" statement (e.g., "First, Carl, and then your turn") and be calm about the problem behavior
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Distract both children with a fun activity
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Remind child of when his/her turn is on the "my turn" chart
Outside Play Child wants objects/activity that another child is using Remind child to ask/gesture for a turn
Category: Snack/Meals
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat As you increase time, teach to wait and look at timer
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Set a timer for a short period of time (1 minute), and have the child wait for the timer before leaving the table (slowly increase time as child succeeds)
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Teach child to sit to eat with other classmates by embedding choices
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Offer alternate choices
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Refer to visual first-then cue to "first sit, then eat" or "first sit and eat, then music/TV"
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Comment aloud "Mary is sitting, and Johnny is sitting"; using the childs classmates names
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Cue to wait and look at timer
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Gesture and tell the child, "Say all done", and let the child leave (slowly increase time required to sit)
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Provide a visual first-then cue of "first sit, then eat" or "first sit and eat, then music/TV"
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Put on child's favorite music or TV program while eating
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Praise for sitting
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Give choices of where to sit or what cushion to sit on
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Let the child sit next to a peer buddy or next to teacher to encourage sitting
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Have child help prepare the table for snack/meals to encourage participation in routine
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Provide the child highly preferred foods to encourage sitting
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Teach to follow visual first-then cue
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Allow the child to leave table when gestures/says "All done", gradually build up time at the table by saying, "One more bite, then all done" (slowly increase over time)
Snack/Meals Child doesn't like to sit to eat Teach child to gesture/say "All done", and let out (slowly increase time)
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Teach to gesture/say "all done"
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Teach child to follow visual first-then cue
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Teach child to join snack/meals with a drink
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Teach child to make food choices (see Sample Visuals)
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Teach child to expand food tolerance or preferences by pairing with highly preferred foods and/or sauces
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Remind child he/she can choose to just drink
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Use first-then visual cue while saying "first snack, then ___" (favorite item)
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Avoid force feeding; this can cause the child to become afraid of foods or may cause gagging/choking
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Introduce non preferred foods by giving very tiny portions along side preferred food; do not expect him/her to eat, just build up tolerance for the presence of food
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Cue child to gesture/say, "All done"
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Allow food choices (see Sample Visuals) or preferred sauces (ketchup, BBQ, mustard, salad dressing)
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Praise for eating and/or trying new foods
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Use first-then visual or auditory cue: first snack, then _____ (something preferred like a snack or activity)
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Allow the child to just have a drink and sit with the other children
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Allow child to be a helper to encourage participation
Snack/Meals Child has restricted eating preferences Allow child to bring food from home
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Increase portions or give more filling food when the child is accessing food due to hunger or growth spurt (bread)
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Teach child to accept limits
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Serve pieces of food, or provide small portions to create the need for the child and other children to request more food from teacher
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Praise child for eating own food
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Create and read scripted story about eating at school: keeping hands to self; eating own food; perspective of friends when food is taken; and how to ask for more food
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Prompt other children to tell child to ask teacher
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Offer special rewards, in first-then format, for keeping hands to self by using things the child enjoys ("First keep hands to self, then ____")
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Check with family about familys meal time traditions and if the child has access to sibling's food
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Create space between children that make it more difficult to reach the food (while still keeping the child with the "group")
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Use a placemat or designate eating space with masking or colored tape
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Praise for eating own food and for keeping hands to self
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Remind child that it is his/her friend's food and he/she can ask the teacher for more (use words, gestures, or pictures for "more")
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Prompt "Ask for more" or "Tell me more"
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Remind child of "reward" for keeping hands to self; say, "First keep hands to self, then _____ (high fives, rock with Ms./Mr. ___, sticker on the chart, etc.")
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Remind child of his/her "eating space" by showing "designated area" marked off with tape or placemat
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Remind child of expectations by reading scripted story
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Teach child to request food from teacher (gesture/say "more")
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Teach child to keep body/hands within eating space
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Teach child to look at and imitate peer buddy
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Teach child to follow first-then verbal/visual cue
Snack/Meals Child wants other's food Remind child to gesture/ask for more from the teacher, then serve child
Category: Transitions
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Remind the child of his/her special job in the next activity (if necessary, cue with a picture or object)
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Teach child to make a choice of embedded preference and friend to play with in upcoming activities
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Use a fun "transition activity", such as "move like a frog to ___" or "hop on one foot to ___" or "choo choo like a train to ___" or sing a song about the next activity
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Give choices (see Sample Visuals) of where to sit, what to play with, who to sit by, etc.
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Help the child find something fun about the next activity
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Make sure there is something fun for the child in the next activity, such as a special job or something of interest for the child
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Have the child walk with a peer buddy
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Have child transition with a photograph of area/activity he/she is expected to go to
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Prompt child with visual classroom schedule and/or first-then visual schedule to indicate transition
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Shadow child through transition to next activity
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Use a timer, set if for 5 minutes, and let the child know when the bell rings activity is finished or all done; give the child a safety signal before the timer goes off
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Start transition about 5 minutes before end of activity and every minute there-after, tell the child "5 more minutes"
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Use visual schedule to remind of something fun following activity, or use first-then schedule "First ___, then ___" after next activity
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Redirect and ignore behavior when possible
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Cue peer buddy to show him/her where to go or to take his/her hand to help
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Re-cue child of expectation by pointing to photograph
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Re-cue child to make a choice
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Praise child for going to next activity
Transitions Child doesn't like or want to go to next activity Teach child to transition through the use of prevention strategies listed
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Teach the child to transition with a visual cue card
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Teach the child to follow visual schedule
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Point out peers who are transitioning nicely
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Model expected behavior
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Teach the child to make a choice of a "routine transition activity" while waiting for all peers to arrive to next activity
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Give the child a transition activity to reduce wait time (look at book while waiting, blocks as a small group, puppet play at seat, photo albums, etc.)
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Have next activity totally set-up so that when the children transition it is ready and the activity can begin immediately
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Teach the child to imitate peers
Transitions Child doesn't understand where to go or what to do (too much "wait time") Redirect child verbally and with visual cue card as to what to do or of next activity; help the child succeed if needed and then immediately praise
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Teach child to choose a preferred activity and/or friend(s) for next activity
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Teach child to follow transition safety signal (verbal cues, timer, bells) and stop activity
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Teach child to follow visual schedule and predict when the activity will happen again
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Teach child to gesture/ask for one more minute or one more turn and then transition
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Redirect and focus child on the visual schedule and upcoming fun activity
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Tell the child, "I know you really like ___, but you will have fun at ____. I can help you go to the ____, or you can go on your own". (Pause, then assist if needed and immediately praise.)
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Let the child know when he/she can do the activity again by putting a picture (or allowing the child to put up the picture) of activity on a schedule for the next day or on a calendar
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Validate the child's feelings, "You look upset. I know you like___; we'll do that tomorrow."
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Praise child for going to next activity
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Praise child for putting away materials
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Give the child a special job during the transition or in the next activity (i.e., door holder, line leader, etc.)
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Have or help the child put materials away for closure (play a clean-up turn-taking game)
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Use visual schedule to show child upcoming fun activities. Allow child to manipulate schedule by turning over or removing completed activity
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Have the child transition with a peer buddy
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Use a timer, set if for 5 minutes, and let the child know when the bell rings the activity is finished or all done; give the child a safety signal before the timer goes off ("one more minute, then bell and all done")
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Put picture of activity on week calendar (see Sample Visuals) for tomorrow or on visual schedule for later in the day
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Prepare child for a transition, by providing a safety signal about 5 minutes before end of activity and every minute thereafter. Tell the child "5 more minutes, then time for _____, 3 more minutes then time for ____, etc."
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave activity Tell the child when he/she will do the activity again. Say, "We'll do that tomorrow", and show him/her on the visual schedule when the activity will occur again
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Teach the child to follow visual schedule and predict when parent will pick up
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Teach child to say/gesture good-bye (use hand-over-hand prompting if necessary so that you can then praise the child for saying good-bye)
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Redirect child with comfort item and allow him/her to take the item to the next activity
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent If upset, read the "I Go to Preschool" story to the child
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Comfort child by saying "You'll see mom or dad after school"
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Help child inside classroom
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Tell child to say/gesture good bye to parent while waving (and vice versa)
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Put a picture of caregiver on a visual schedule so that the child can predict when he/she will be picked up from school/bus
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Have a peer buddy from class greet the child each day
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Provide a fun job as they enter the classroom
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Allow child to bring a comfort item from home, and hold it during day
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Comfort and reassure child that someone (mommy or daddy) will pick him/her up after school
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Have parent drop child at the door (or designated drop off area), and say a quick "good bye" and "see you after school"
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Use "I Go to Preschool" story (at both home and school)
Transitions Child doesn't want to leave parent Teach child to ask/gesture for a hug or to sit on teacher's lap
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Shadow the child during the transition so that you can prompt and praise
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Use a photograph visual schedule
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Allow the child to do something special in the next activity (sit next to a friend or teacher, help with a favorite activity)
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Adult helps or reminds how to move to the next area/activity
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Give him/her something to carry (picture of where to go, item to use in next activity, etc.)
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Ignore inappropriate behavior, and praise those who are transitioning correctly
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Remind him/her to walk correctly and model, then remind that he/she can sit next to a friend or teacher in next activity
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Teach the child to follow visual schedule
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Teach the child to transition with his/her hands to self
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Teach child to choose a friend or teacher to transition with to the next activity
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Let child carry something to next activity
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Let child choose a friend or teacher to walk with to the next activity (can hold hands)
Transitions Child gets attention from peers/adults Have child transition while moving like an animal (hop like a frog, crawl like a turtle, etc.)
Transitions Child(ren) gets frustrated with transitions Include enough time for routines and transitions; Involve children in carrying out routines and transitions; plan a consistent approach for carrying out group routines; provide advance notice of transitions and explain what happens next
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